Here are my notes for the struggle of independence for india:

1. The British rule was direct British imperial rule that included present-day India, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan from 1858 to 1947.

2. Much of the territory under British control was nominally independent Princely States which were directly under the rule of Maharajas, Rajas, Thakurs, and Nawabs.

3. The British abolished the East India Company and replaced it with direct rule under the British Crown in 1858. In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy, Queen Victoria promised equal treat under the British law, which never materialized.

4. Several administrative modifications were introduced including the creation in London of a cabinet post and the Secretary of State for India.

5. In 1880’s, a small but steadily growing number of native-born Indians, educated in British schools on the Subcontinent or in Britain, were able to assume positions such as the Provinces of India and as the part of the Indian Civil Service.

6. Doctrine of Lapse stated that the East India Company would annex territories of rules that died without male heirs.

7. In that time, about 40 percent of Indian Territory and 20-25 percent of the population remained under the control of 562 princes notable for their religious and ethnic diversity.

8. British attitudes toward Indian shifted from relative openness to narrow- mindedness and racism even against those with comparable background and achievement as well as loyalty.

9. In 1883, there was an attempt to remove race barriers in criminal jurisdictions by introducing a bill empowering Indian judges to adjudicate offences committed by Europeans. However, it exposed the racial gap that already existed, sparking even greater Indian nationalism and reaction.

10. Lord Brantford in his speech to Parliament said; “We did not conquer India for the benefit of the Indians. I know that it is said at missionary meetings that we have conquered India to raise the level of the Indians. That is a lie. We conquered India to raise outlet for the goods of Great Britain…”

11. On the other side, the Indian Colonial Administrator F.J. Shore said; “The fundamental principle of the English has been to make the whole Indian nation subservient, in every possible way, to the interests and benefits of themselves…”

12. British India also experienced a period of unprecedented calamity when the region was swept by a series of frequent and devastating famines.

13. Approximately 25 major famines spread through states such as Tamilnadu in South India, Bihar in the north, and Bengal in the east in the later half of the 19th century, killing 30-47 million Indians.

14. The famines continued until independence in 1947. The most devastating one was the Bengal Famine of 1943, which killed 3-4 million Indians during World War II.

15. Observers attributed the famines both to uneven rainfall, drought, and British economic and administrative policies.

16. Since 1857, these policies had led to the seizure and conversion of local farmland to foreign-owned plantations, restrictions on internal trade, inflationary measures that increased the price of food and substantial exports of staple crops from India to the U.K.

17. The colonial rule overthrew the native village communities and industries. Indian irrigation fell into complete decay as the system of artificial irrigation, which requires continual care and repair broke down.

18. India became a prime source of food stuffs. English-owned plantations run by forced labor were established to furnish these needs. Heavy land taxes were placed upon the peasantry.

19. The land tax keeps the mass of the population in a state bordering upon slavery. Millions cannot get sufficient food. At the end of his year of labor, the farmer finds his crop divided between landlord and the government.

Author: not give
Date published: 15th July, 2007

20. The first British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast. Later in the century, the East India Company opened permanent trading stations at Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.

So these are my recent notes, I will keep on researching for more.