Slavery in 1860 Facts:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_America
  1. 4 mill. out off 12 mill -- slaves in 15 states -- legal
  2. household slaves/house -- a few
  3. majority of slaves -- held by planters
  4. 95% live in the south
http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h37-af.html
  1. Plantation owners in the Americas - see slavery as an economic necessity
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081008230232AANGuaM
  1. In the North - no one could own another person - "free states".
  2. States - someone could own slaves -"slave states'

http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/geography/slave_census_VA_1860.htm
Slavery in Virginia
  1. 1770 - 8% was slaves
  2. most worked as agricultural laborers on tobacco farms
  3. 18th century- indentured servents decreased - virginia planter wanted more african slaves
  4. mid century - 2 out of 5 were african/african american
  5. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 - whites brought more enslaved africans
  6. planters used the children of slave for cotton plantations in the south
  7. Richmond -slave depot- gathering & transporting -New Orleans and Natchez, Mississippi
  8. white Virginians remained committed to the institution of slavery
http://www.wvculture.org/HiStory/journal_wvh/wvh21-1.html
Slavery in Virginia
slavProxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0 oxy-Connection: keep-aliProxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0 Cache-Control: max-age=0 y was not an uncommon thing in what is now the state of West Virginia
  • Jefferson County is the site of John Brown's famous raid - wanted to free slaves
  • Jefferson County has the greatest number
  • The slaves account for twenty per- cent of its population
  • Their chief duties consist of%

OUTLINE FOR ESSAY

INTRODUCTION


I.The underground railroad
II.Harriet Tubman

BODY

I.Escaping from slavery
II.Freeing her family
III.Freeing the slaves
IV.Fugitive slave act
IIV Funding and the rebellion

CONCLUSION

I.Legacy
II.Personal opinions


INFORMATION NEED FOR ESSAY


http://www.reference.com/browse/Underground%20railroad

The Underground Railroad
  1. organized system for helping fugitive slaves escape to Canada or to areas of safety in free states.
  2. run by local groups of Northern abolitionists, both white and free blacks
  3. Homes were stations
  4. People who guided the "passengers" (slaves) where called "conductors"
  5. Not only helped by abolitionists and conductors, but people who just wanted to help
  6. The major part played by free blacks-both North and South
  7. fleeing slaves themselves, who were usually helped only after the most dangerous part of their journey (i.e., the Southern part) was over, were probably more important factors in the success of their escape than many conductors readily admitted.
  8. Quakers were particularly prominent as conductors.
  9. a few thousand a year between 1840 and 1860, escaped successfully.
  10. The exploits of Harriet Tubman stood out
  11. Far from being kept secret, details of escapes on the Underground Railroad were highly publicized and exaggerated in both the North and the South, although for different reasons.
  12. The abolitionists used the Underground Railroad as a propaganda device to dramatize the evils of slavery


The Structure
  1. known as a "railroad"
  2. The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes, transportation, and safe houses,
  3. Safe houses were known as "stations"
  4. Escaped slaves would move along the route from one way station to the next, steadily making their way north


Harriet Tubman

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Tubman

  1. 1820 – 10 March 1913
  2. African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the U.S. Civil War.
  3. thirteen missions to rescue over seventy slaves
  4. beaten and whipped by her various owners as a child.

Legacy

http://www.americanprofile.com/heroes/article/1357.html

  1. most successful “conductors”
  2. “The promotion of Harriet Tubman’s legacy has been a healing force in the community,” says Evelyn Townsend, president of the Harriet Tubman Organization in Cambridge, Md. (John Lewis)
  3. returned to the area 19 times, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom

http://faculty.brenau.edu/lewis/tubman.html
  1. Before she died, Harriet Tubman proudly recalled: "I never ran my train off the track, and I never lost a passenger" (Compton's, Tubman).

HARRIET TUBMAN AS A CONDUCTOR
http://womenshistory.about.com/od/harriettubman/a/tubman_moses.htm
  1. The year after Harriet Tubman's arrival in the North, she decided to return to Maryland to free her sister and her sister's family. In the next 16 years, she returned 18 or 19 more times, bringing a total of over 200 slaves out of slavery.
  2. Harriet Tubman's organizing ability was key to her success
  3. usually left on a Saturday evening, as the Sabbath might delay anyone noticing their absence
  4. Harriet Tubman -- about five feet tall, but she was smart and she was strong -- and she carried a large rifle.
  5. used the rifle not only to intimidate pro-slavery people they might meet, but also to keep any of the slaves from backing out
  6. She threatened any who seemed like they were about to leave, telling them that "dead Negroes tell no tales."
  7. first arrived in Philadelphia, she was, under the law of the time, a free woman
  8. the next year, with the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act, her status changed: she became, instead, a fugitive slave
  9. all citizens were obligated under the law to aid in her recapture and return
  10. she had to operate as quietly as possible, but nevertheless she was soon known throughout abolitionist circles and the freedmen's communities.
  11. Tubman began guiding her "passengers" on the underground railroad all the way to Canada, where they would be truly free. From 1851 through 1857,
  12. lived part of the year in St. Catherines, Canada, - spending some time in the area of Auburn, New York-many of the citizens were anti-slavery.
  13. Tubman developed her already-substantial oratorical skills and began more openly to appear as a public speaker, at anti-slavery meetings and, by the end of the decade, at women's rights meetings, too. A price had been placed on her head -- at one time as high as $12,000 and later even $40,000. Yet she was never betrayed.
  14. Harriet Tubman freed three of her brothers in 1854, bringing them to St. Catherines
  15. In 1857, on one of her trips to Maryland- brought both of her parents to freedom- first established them in Canada-t they could not take the climate, and so she settled them on land she bought in Auburn with the aid of abolitionist supporters.
  16. Pro-slavery writers criticized her strongly for bringing her "frail" elderly parents to the hardship of a life in the North
  17. In 1851, she returned to see her husband, John Tubman, only to find that he'd remarried, and was not interested in leaving.
  18. Her trips were largely financed by her own funds, earned as a cook and laundress
  19. received support from, Susan B. Anthony, William H. Seward, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Horace Mann and the Alcotts, including educator Bronson Alcott and writer Louisa May Alcott. Many of these supporters -- like Susan B. Anthony -- gave Tubman use of their homes as stations on the underground railroad
  20. also had crucial support from abolitionists William Still of Philadelphia and Thomas Garratt of Wilmington, Delaware.
  21. When John Brown was organizing for a rebellion that he believed would end slavery,
  22. She supported his plans at Harper's Ferry, helped raise funds in Canada, helped recruit soldiers and she intended to be there to help him take the armory to supply guns to slaves who they believed would rise up in rebellion against their enslavement


HARRIET TUBMANIN SLAVERY, ESCAPING

  1. Harriet Tubman was born into slavery in Dorchester County on the Eastern shore of Maryland, on the plantation of Edward Brodas or Brodess. Her birth name was Araminta, and she was called Minty until she changed her name to Harriet in her early teen years.
  2. At five years old---She was never very good at household chores, and was beaten regularly by her owners and those who "rented" her
  3. At age fifteen she sustained a head injury- deliberately blocked the path of the overseer pursuing an uncooperative fellow slave, and was hit by the heavy weight the overseer tried to fling at the other slave.
  4. harriet had alot of sleeping fits
  5. In 1844 or 1845, Harriet married John Tubman, a free black. The marriage was apparently not a good match, from the beginning.
  6. shortly after her marriage that Harriet hired a lawyer to investigate her own legal history, and discovered that her mother had been freed on a technicality on the death of a former owner.-- Harriet was born free
  7. This caused her to contemplate freedom and resent her situation.
  8. In 1849, several events came together to motivate Harriet Tubman to act. She heard that two of her brothers were about to be sold to the Deep South.
  9. And her husband threatened to sell her South, too.
  10. She tried to persuade her brothers to escape with her, but ended up leaving alone, making her way to Philadelphia, and freedom.
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/activists/tubman/youth_3
  1. Tubman decided to run away.
  2. so she set out with her two brothers, and followed the North Star in the sky to guide her north to freedom. Her brothers became frightened and turned back,
  3. she continued on and reached Philadelphia.
  4. There she found work as a household servant and saved her money so she could return to help others escape.